Handwriting is a complex human activity that entails an intricate blend of cognitive, kinesthetic, and perceptual-motor components. Handwriting is a major occupation of childhood that is vital for school-children's ability to function, work and participate in the mainstream classroom environment. Elementary school children typically spend up to 50% of the school day engaged in writing tasks, some of which are performed under time constraints. Furthermore, during their first three years of school, children are expected to acquire a level of handwriting proficiency that enables them to make skillful use of writing as a "tool" to carry out their "work" at school. Poor hand writers have difficulties developing their writing skills and as a result, often suffer in their educational and emotional development.

Handwriting difficulties is one of the most common reasons for referring school-aged children to occupational therapists. Hence it is a major focus of school-based occupational therapy. To date, the major approaches to handwriting evaluation have included global-holistic evaluations of readability and analytic evaluations that assess readability in relation to predetermined criteria. Therefore, a computerized system was developed by Rosenblum et al. (ComPET – Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool) to investigate the process of handwriting in a measurable and accurate way. Studies are conducted on children with dysgraphia, learning disabilities, as Well as children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Furthermore, as a result of the complexity of handwriting it is considered that this tool may be sensitive to age and to age-related impairments in cognitive functioning. Thus, such assessment of handwriting might facilitate the diagnosis of related impairments. As a result, studies using the ComPet system are conducted with patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and healthy elderly persons to examine their handwriting process characteristics in relation to their every day participation in daily occupations.




From the press





Published articles


Šafárová, K., Mekyska, J., Zvončák, V., Galáž, Z., Francová, P., Čechová, B., ... & Rosenblum, S. (2020). Psychometric Properties of Screening Questionnaires for Children With Handwriting Issues. Frontiers in Psychology10, 2937. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02937


Rosenblum, S., Ben-Simhon, H. A., Meyer, S., & Gal, E. (2019). Predictors of handwriting performance among children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders60, 16-24.

Hen-Herbst, L., & Rosenblum, S. (2019). Which characteristics predict writing capabilities among adolescents with dysgraphia?. Pattern Recognition Letters121, 6-12.

Fogel, Y., Josman, N., & Rosenblum, S. (2019). Functional abilities as reflected through temporal handwriting measures among adolescents with neuro-developmental disabilities. Pattern Recognition Letters121, 13-18.


Badarna, M., Shimshoni, I., Luria, G., & Rosenblum, S. (2018). The importance of pen motion pattern groups for semi-automatic classification of handwriting into mental workload classes. Cognitive Computation10(2), 215-227.

Rispler, C., Luria, G., Kahana, A., & Rosenblum, S. (2018). Mood Impact on Automaticity of Performance: Handwriting as Exemplar. Cognitive Computation, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12559-017-9540-y

Rosenblum, S. (2018). Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia. PloS one13(4).

Barnett, A. L., Prunty, M., & Rosenblum, S. (2018). Development of the Handwriting Legibility Scale (HLS): A preliminary examination of Reliability and Validity. Research in developmental disabilities72, 240-247.


Rosenblum, S., Amit, H., & Gal, E. (2016). Unique handwriting performance characteristics of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 23, 235-244. 

Savin, Z., Lejbkowicz, I., Glass-Marmor, L., Lavi, I., Rosenblum, S., & Miller, A. (2016). Effect of Fampridine-PR (prolonged released 4-aminopyridine) on the manual functions of patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 360, 102-109. 

Rosenblum, S., & Luria, G. (2016). Applying a handwriting measurement model for capturing cognitive load implications through complex figure drawing. Cognitive Computation, 8, 69-77.

Rosenblum, S., & Dror, G. (2016). Identifying developmental dysgraphia characteristics utilizing handwriting classification methods. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems47(2), 293-298.

Mekyska, J., Faundez-Zanuy, M., Mzourek, Z., Galaz, Z., Smekal, Z., & Rosenblum, S. (2016). Identification and rating of developmental dysgraphia by handwriting analysis. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems47(2), 235-248.


Rosenblum, S., & Gafni-Lachter, L. (2015). Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Children (HPSQ–C): Development, Reliability, and Validity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(3),1-9. 


Gilboa, Y., Josman, N., Fattal-Valevski, A., Toledano-Alhadef, H., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Underlying mechanisms of writing difficulties among children with Neurofibromatosis type 1. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, 1310-1316. Abstract

Luria, G., Kahana, A., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Detection of deception via handwriting behaviors using a computerized tool: Toward an evaluation of malingering. Cognitive Computation, 6(4), 849-855.‏ Abstract


Rosenblum, S. (2013). Handwriting measures as reflectors of Executive Functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 357-367. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Aassy Margieh, J., & Engel-Yeger, B. (2013). Handwriting features of children with developmental coordination disorder–Results of triangular evaluation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 4134-4141. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Engel Yeger, B., & Fogel, Y. (2013). Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with handwriting performance features. Human Movement Science, 32, 363-76. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Samuel, M., Zlotnik, S., Erikh, I., & Schlesinger, I. (2013). Handwriting as an objective tool for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. Journal of Neurology, 260, 2357-2361. Abstract


Engel-Yeger, B., Hus, S., & Rosenblum, S. (2012). Age effects on sensory-processing abilities and their impact on handwriting. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79, 264-274. Abstract

Luria, G., & Rosenblum, S. (2012). A Computerised Multidimensional Measurement of Mental Workload via Handwriting. Behavioural Research Methods, 44, 575-586. Abstract


Luria, G., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). Comparing the handwriting behaviors of true and false writing with computerized handwriting measures. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1115–1128. doi:10.1002/acp.1621 [I.F. 1.414 (5Y: 1.987), R58/83 Psychology, Experimental]. Abstract


Engel-Yeger, B., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). The effects of protracted graphomotor tasks on tripod pinch strength and handwriting performance in children with dysgraphia. Disability & Rehabilitation 32(21), 1749-1757.‏ Abstract

Gilboa, Y., Josman, N., Fattal-Valevski, A., Toledano-Alhadef, H., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). The handwriting performance of children with NF1. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 929-935. Abstract

Heinik, J., Wenre, P., Dekel, T. Gurevitz, I., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). Computerized kinematic analysis of the clock drawing task in elderly people with mild Major Depressive-Disorder: An exploratory study. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 479-488. Abstract

Poon, K. W, Li-Tsang, C. W. P., Weiss, T. P. L., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 1552-1560. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Aloni, T., & Josman, N. (2010). Relationships between handwriting performance and organizational abilities among children with and without dysgraphia: A preliminary study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 502-509. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Dekel, T., Gurevitz, I., Werner, P., & Heinik, J. (2010). Handwriting process variables among elderly people with mild Major Depressive Disorder: A preliminary study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 141-147. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., & Weiss, P. L. (2010). Evaluating functional decline in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 577-586. Abstract

Luria, G., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). Comparing the handwriting behaviours of true and false writing with computerized handwriting measures. Applied Cognitive Psychology24(8), 1115-1128. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.1621/full


Rosenblum, S.,& Eduardo-Roman, H. (2009). Fluctuation analysis of proficient and dysgraphic handwritings in children. EPL-Europhysics letters ,85, 58007, 1-6. Abstract https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/85/58007

Engel-Yeger, B., Nagauker-Yanuv, L., & Rosenblum S. (2009). Handwriting performance: The relationships between process and product measures, children's self-reports, and perceived self-efficacy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(2), 182-192. Abstract


Rosenblum, S., Epsztein, L., & Josman, N. (2008). Handwriting performance among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD), on and off medication in comparison to a control group – A pilot study. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 28(3), 219-234. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., & Frisch C. (2008). Dysgraphia – characteristics and evaluation method – contribution of research to clinical reasoning process. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 17(3), H 155 (In Hebrew).

Rosenblum, S. (2008). Characteristics and evaluation methods of developmental dysgraphia: Research contribution to educational and clinical reasoning. Handwriting today, 15-22. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., & Miri Livneh-Zirinsky. (2008). Handwriting process and product characteristics of children diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder, Human Movement Science, 27, 200-214 Special issue about Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). Abstract

Rosenblum, S. (2008). Development, Reliability and Validity of the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Handwriting Proficiency (HPSQ). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(3), 298-307. Abstract


Rosenblum, S., & Werner P. (2006). Assessing the handwriting process in healthy elderly persons using a computerized system. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 8(5),433-439. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Chevion, D., & Weiss, P. L. (2006). Using data visualization and signal processing to characterize the handwriting process. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9(4), 404-417. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Dvorkin, A., & Weiss, P. L. (2006). Automatic segmentation as a tool for examining the handwriting process of children with dysgraphic and proficient handwriting. Human Movement Science, 25, 608-621. (Special issue about Handwriting). Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Goldstand, S., & Parush, S. (2006). The relationship between biomechanical ergonomic factors, handwriting product quality, handwriting efficiency, and computerized handwriting process measures in children with and without handwriting difficulties. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60(1), 28-39. Abstract

Werner, P., Rosenblum, S., Bar-On G., Heinik, J., & Korczyn, A. (2006). Handwriting process variables discriminating mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Gerontology, 61(B), 228-236. Abstract


Rosenblum, S. (2005). Using the Alphabet task to differentiate between proficient and non-proficient handwriters. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100, 629-639. Abstract


Rosenblum, S., Weiss, P. L. and Parush, S. (2004). Handwriting evaluation for developmental dysgraphia: Process versus product. Reading and Writing, 17(5), 433-458. Abstract


Rosenblum, S., & Josman, N. (2003). The relationship between postural control and fine manual dexterity. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 23(4), 47-60. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Weiss, P. L. & Parush, S. (2003). Product and process evaluation of handwriting difficulties: A review. Educational Psychology Review, 15(1), 41-81. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Parush, S. & Weiss, P. L. (2003). Computerized temporal handwriting characteristics of proficient and poor handwriters. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(2), 129-138. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Parush, S. and Weiss, P. L. (2003). The In Air phenomenon: temporal and spatial correlates of the handwriting process. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96(3), 933-954. Abstract


Rosenblum, S. (2002). Using a digitizer for the evaluation of handwriting difficulties. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 11(2), H85-H86. (In Hebrew).


Shenkar, R., Gal, E.,& Rosenblum, S. (1995). Approaches and methods of Treatment for Handwriting difficulties. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4(3), H102-H116. (In Hebrew)

Gal E., Rosenblum, S., & Shenkar, R. (1995). Ways of Evaluating Handwriting Components and Penmanship Resulting Thereof. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4(1), H15-H30. (In Hebrew)


Rosenblum, S., Shenkar, R., Gal, E. (1994). Writing-Components, Evaluation and Treatment. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(4), H169-H191. (In Hebrew)

Articles in conference proceeding

Rosenblum, S., Samuel, M., Zlotnik, S., & Schlesinger, I. (2009). Handwriting performance measures of 'real life' tasks: A comparison between the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease and controls . Advances in Graphonomics (pp. 43-47). Dijon, France: University de Bougogne.

Gafni-Lachter, L., & Rosenblum, S. (2009). Temporal aspects of handwriting skill development- A computerized study utilizing the ComPET. Advances in Graphonomics (pp. 71-74). Dijon, France: University de Bougogne.

Richardson, A., Kraus, S., Weiss, P. L., & Rosenblum, S. (2008). COACH - Cumulative online algorithm for classification of handwriting deficiencies. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1750-1751) (IAAI-08).

Hen, L., Josman, N., & Rosenblum, S. (2008). Tele-evaluation and intervention among adolescents with handwriting difficulties – Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET) implementation. Proceedings of the 7th ICDVRAT conference with ArtAbilitation (pp.1-5). Maia, Portugal.

Rosenblum, S., Dvorkin, A. Y., & Weiss, P. L. (2005). Automatic segmentation as a tool for examining the handwriting process of children with dysgraphic and proficient handwriting . In A. Marcelli ; C. De Stefano (Eds.) Advances in Graphonomics. (pp. 84-90). Italy; University of Salerno.

Rosenblum, S., Parush, S., Epsztein, L., & Weiss, P. L. (2003). Process versus product evaluation of poor handwriting among children with Developmental Dysgraphia and ADHD. In H. L. Teulings ; A. W. A. Van Gemmert. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Graphonomics Socity. USA; Scottsdale Arizona. Pp. 169-173*.

Rosenblum, S., Parush, S. & Weiss, P. (2001). Temporal measures of poor and proficient handwriters. In Meulenbroek, R.G.J. and Steenbergen, B.(Eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth biennial conference of the International Graphonomics Society. (pp. 119-125). The Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.

Rosenblum, S., Jessel, A., Adi-Japha, E., Parush, S. & Weiss, P. L. (1997). Quantitative characteristics of typical and dysgraphic children in Hebrew script. Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society. (pp. 71-72) Italy: Genova.

Other Scientific Publications

Rosenblum, S. (2002). Using Digitizer for evaluation of handwriting difficulties. Israel Journal of Occupational Therapy, 11(2), H85-H86. (In Hebrew).

Grants received

ISF - Novel tools for the evaluation and remediation of handwriting deficiencies of school-age children (Co-principal Investigator with Prof. Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss. (2003-2004) 212,000 NIS.

VATAT- Computerized system for measurement, analysis and visualization of pen pressure, squeeze and motion (2004) $10,000
University of Haifa, Research Authority prize for young researchers: The contribution to the clients of visual illustration of handwriting evaluation results (Co-principal Investigator with Prof. Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss).(2004) 6000 NIS.

Edmond de Rothschild Caesarea-: Tele-evaluation of handwriting difficulties. (Co-principal Investigator with Prof. Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss and Dan Chevion). (2003-2004) $6,000

The Dean prize; Assessing the functional relevance of handwriting in the diagnosis and development of Alzheimer's disease: An interdisciplinary approach. (Co-principal Investigator with Prof. Werner, P. and Dr. Jeremia Heinik). (2003) 10,000 NIS.

Ministry of Education (Israel) Quantitative characteristics of the handwriting of typical and dysgraphic children. (Co-principle Investigator with Prof. Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss) (1999-2001) 80,000 NIS.

"Ezvonot" Quantitative characteristics of the handwriting of typical and dysgraphic children. (Co-principal Investigator with Prof. Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss) (1998-1999) 20,000 NIS.