Occupation and Leisure



Occupation encompasses a wide range of doing that occurs within the context of time, space, society and culture. Temporal, physical, social and cultural contexts pose conditions that invite, shape and inform our doing.
The temporal and physical worlds provide conditions that give doing it's fundamental character. Society and culture provide and assign us things to do. They give us instructions, reasons and meaning for our doing. The kinds of things we do, why and how we do them, and what we think and feel about them, all derive from the intersecting conditions and influences of time, space, society and culture.

Occupation is a vital part of the human condition and includes work, play/leisure and activities of daily living within a temporal, physical and sociocultural context.

Work refers to activities that provide services or commodities to others; such as ideas, knowledge, help, information sharing, entertainment, utilitarian or artistic objects and protection. Play/leisure refers to activities undertaken for their own sake, such as exploring, pretending, celebrating, and engaging in games or sports, and pursuing hobbies. Activities of daily living are the typical life tasks required for self-care and self maintenance, such as grooming, bathing, eating, cleaning the house, doing laundry and so on.

Activities of daily living, play and work interweave and sometimes overlap in the course of everyday life (Kielhofner, 2002). Studies in occupational therapy are focusing on developing tools to evaluate varied occupations and one's participation in every day life activities.



Leisure or play usually occur outside of the obligations of one's work and provide opportunities for enjoyment, relaxation, recreation, personal growth and goal achievement. Leisure is driven by internal motivation, implies freedom of choice, and is not usually done within time constraints. It is of central importance in many people’s lives. Moreover, using leisure has many benefits, including alleviation of anxiety and increased wellbeing.
Studies about leisure in occupational therapy focus on developing tools for evaluating the characteristics of leisure activities among populations of individuals of various ages and from different cultures. Moreover, the studies focus on the varied needs for pleasurable activities among individuals in populations with special needs, such as children with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, people after strokes(CVA) or women following breast surgery.

Published articles

Rosenblum, S. (2017). Towards Daily Function Homeostasis: A Conceptual Health Framework and Keys for Action. Family Medicine and Disease Prevention, 3(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.23937/2469-5793/1510053

Meyer, S., & Rosenblum, S. (2017). Development and Validation of the Celiac Disease-Children’s Activities Report (CD-Chart) for Promoting Self-Management among Children and Adolescents. Nutrients, 9(10), 1130. doi:10.3390/nu9101130

Rosenblum, Josman, N., & Toglia, J. (2017). Development of the Daily Living Questionnaire (DLQ): A Factor Analysis Study. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, 5(4), https://doi.org/10.15453/2168-6408.1326 Article

Meyer, S., & Rosenblum, S. (2017). Activities, Participation and Quality of Life Concepts in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: A Scoping Review. Nutrients, 9(9), 929; doi:10.3390/nu9090929

Meyer, S., & Rosenblum, S. (2017). Daily Experiences and Challenges Among Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: Focus Group Results. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001635

Meyer, S., & Rosenblum, S. (2016). Children with celiac disease: Health-related quality of life and leisure participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70, 7006220010p1-7006220010p8.

Frisch, C., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Reliability and validity of the Executive Function and Occupational Routines Scale (EFORTS). Research in Developmental disabilities, 35(9), 2148-2157. Abstract

Gilboa, Y., Rosenblum, S., Fattal-Valevski, A., Toledano-Alhadef, H., & Josman, N. (2014). Is there a relationship between executive functions and academic success in children with neurofibromatosis type 1?. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24(6), 918-935. Abstract

Rosenblum, S., Frisch, C., Deutsh-Castel, T., & Josman, N. (2014). Daily functioning profile of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: A pilot study using an ecological assessment. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 25(3): 402-18. Abstract

Schneider, E., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Development, reliability and validity of "My Child's Play" questionnaire. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(3), 277-285.

Schreuer, N. Zaksh, D., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Participation in leisure activities: differences between children with and without physical disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35, 223-233. Abstract

Shooman , L. T., & Rosenblum, S. (2014). Drawing Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (DPSQ): Development, reliability and validity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(6) e227-e233.

Gilboa, Y., & Rosenblum, S. (2012). The uniqueness of occupational therapy intervention among ultra-Orthodox Jewish Children. Israeli Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21, H7-H18 (In Hebrew). Abstract

Gilboa, Y., Rosenblum, S., Fattal-Valevski, A., Rizzo, A., & Josman, N. (2011). Using a Virtual Classroom environment to describe the attention deficits profile of children with Neurofibromatosis type 1. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2608-2613. Abstract

Gilboa, Y., Rosenblum, S., Fattal-Valevski, A., & Josman, N. (2010). Application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model for children with neurofibromatosis type 1: A Review. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 52, 612-619. Abstract

Josman, N., Goffer, A., & Rosenblum, S. (2010). Development and standardization of the "DO-Eat" Activity of Daily Living Performance test for children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 47-58.

Rosenblum, S., Sachs, D., & Schreuer, N. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 633–641.

Rosenblum, S., & Weiss, P. L. (2010). Evaluating functional decline in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(2), 577-586. Abstract

Zlotnik, S., Sachs, D., Rosenblum, S., Shpasser R., & Josman, N. (2009). The use of the dynamic interactional model in self-Care and motor intervention following traumatic brain injury: Explanatory case studies. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(5), 549-58.

Rosenblum, S., Yurman, G., Gotfrid, Z., Wolpart, M., & Binyamin, N. (2005). Changes in leisure activity participation of women after undergoing surgical intervention for breast cancer. Israeli Journal of Occupational Therapy, 14 (3), H 109-H126 (In Hebrew). Abstract

Arama, K., Pinsky, M., Koren, G., & Rosenblum, S. (2002). The hand skills and dexterity in 5-6 year old children of Israeli Ethiopian immigrant parents versus children of Israeli born parents. Israeli Journal of Occupational Therapy11, H129- H146. (In Hebrew).